headshot of Cynthia St Hilaire

Cynthia St Hilaire

Associate Professor
Assistant Professor
Website Bioengineering Department


BS, University of Vermont, 1997 - 2001

PhD, Boston University School of Medicine, 2003 - 2008

Behzadi, P., & St Hilaire, C. (2024). Aging Two-Step: SOX9's Influence on Vascular Stiffness and Senescence. Circ Res, 134(3), 325-327.Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health). doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.124.324212.

Cuevas, R.A., Behzadi, P., & St Hilaire, C. (2024). gNR4Aly Link Bridging Cellular Metabolism, Lactylation, and Vascular Calcification. Circ Res, 134(11), 1448-1450.Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health). doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.124.324572.

Ferrante, E.A., Cudrici, C.D., Rashidi, M., Fu, Y.P., Huffstutler, R., Carney, K., Chen, M.Y., St Hilaire, C., Smith, K., Bagheri, H., Katz, J.D., Ferreira, C.R., Gahl, W.A., Boehm, M., & Brofferio, A. (2024). Pilot study to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of etidronate treatment for arterial calcification due to deficiency of CD73 (ACDC). Vasc Med, 1358863X241235669.SAGE Publications. doi: 10.1177/1358863X241235669.

Cuevas, R.A., Wong, R., Joolharzadeh, P., Moorhead III, W.J., Chu, C.C., Callahan, J., Crane, A., Boufford, C.K., Parise, A.M., Parwal, A., Behzadi, P., & Hilaire, C.S. (2023). Ecto-5′-nucleotidase (Nt5e/CD73)-mediated adenosine signaling attenuates TGFβ-2 induced elastin and cellular contraction. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-CELL PHYSIOLOGY, 324(2), C327-C338.American Physiological Society. doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.00054.2022.

Harper, R.L., Fang, F., San, H., Negro, A., St Hilaire, C., Yang, D., Chen, G., Yu, Z., Dmitrieva, N.I., Lanzer, J., Davaine, J.M., Schwartzbeck, R., Walts, A.D., Kovacic, J.C., & Boehm, M. (2023). Mast cell activation and degranulation in acute artery injury: A target for post-operative therapy. FASEB JOURNAL, 37(7), e23029.Wiley. doi: 10.1096/fj.202201745RR.

Kroll, R.G., Powell, C., Chen, J., Snider, N.T., Hilaire, C.S., Reddy, A., Kim, J., Pinsky, D.J., Murthy, V.L., & Sutton, N.R. (2023). Circulating Ectonucleotidases Signal Impaired Myocardial Perfusion at Rest and Stress. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION, 12(9), e027920.Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health). doi: 10.1161/JAHA.122.027920.

St Hilaire, C. (2023). Cardiovascular Organoids/3D Models Review Series: an Introduction. CIRCULATION RESEARCH, 132(4), 481-482.Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health). doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.123.322561.

Sutton, N.R., Malhotra, R., St. Hilaire, C., Aikawa, E., Blumenthal, R.S., Gackenbach, G., Goyal, P., Johnson, A., Nigwekar, S.U., Shanahan, C.M., Towler, D.A., Wolford, B.N., & Chen, Y. (2023). Molecular Mechanisms of Vascular Health: Insights From Vascular Aging and Calcification. ARTERIOSCLEROSIS THROMBOSIS AND VASCULAR BIOLOGY, 43(1), 15-29.Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health). doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.122.317332.

Cudrici, C.D., Newman, K.A., Ferrante, E.A., Huffstutler, R., Carney, K., Betancourt, B., Miettinen, M., Siegel, R., Katz, J.D., Nesti, L.J., St Hilaire, C., Lakshmipathy, D., Wen, H., Bagheri, M.H., Boehm, M., & Brofferio, A. (2022). Multifocal calcific periarthritis with distinctive clinical and radiological features in patients with CD73 deficiency. RHEUMATOLOGY, 61(1), 163-173.Oxford University Press (OUP). doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/keab270.

Cuevas, R.A., & St Hilaire, C. (2022). Lnc'ing Metabolic Regulation of Epigenetic Modifications to Atherosclerotic Calcification. CIRCULATION RESEARCH, 130(10), 1583-1585.Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health). doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.122.321142.

Kant, S., Tran, K.V., Kvandova, M., Caliz, A.D., Yoo, H.J., Learnard, H., Dolan, A.C., Craige, S.M., Hall, J.D., Jimenez, J.M., St. Hilaire, C., Schulz, E., Kroller-Schon, S., & Jr, K.J.F. (2022). PGC1α Regulates the Endothelial Response to Fluid Shear Stress via Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Control of Heme Oxygenase-1. ARTERIOSCLEROSIS THROMBOSIS AND VASCULAR BIOLOGY, 42(1), 19-34.Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health). doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.121.317066.

St Hilaire, C. (2022). Medial Arterial Calcification: A Significant and Independent Contributor of Peripheral Artery Disease. ARTERIOSCLEROSIS THROMBOSIS AND VASCULAR BIOLOGY, 42(3), 253-260.Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health). doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.121.316252.

Cuevas, R.A., & St Hilaire, C. (2021). Introduction to the Aortic Valve Disease Review Series. CIRCULATION RESEARCH, 128(9), 1327-1329.Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health). doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.121.319286.

Cuevas, R.A., Chu, C.C., III, M.W.J., Wong, R., Sultan, I., & St Hilaire, C. (2021). Isolation of Human Primary Valve Cells for In vitro Disease Modeling. JOVE-JOURNAL OF VISUALIZED EXPERIMENTS, 2021(170).MyJove Corporation. doi: 10.3791/62439.

Li, Y., Kracun, D., Dustin, C.M., El Massry, M., Yuan, S., Goossen, C.J., DeVallance, E.R., Sahoo, S., St Hilaire, C., Gurkar, A.U., Finkel, T., Straub, A.C., Cifuentes-Pagano, E., & Pagano, P.J. (2021). Forestalling age-impaired angiogenesis and blood flow by targeting NOX: Interplay of NOX1, IL-6, and SASP in propagating cell senescence. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 118(42).Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2015666118.

Ouimet, M., Bauer, R.C., & St Hilaire, C. (2021). Building Your Mentoring Network in Your Early Career. ARTERIOSCLEROSIS THROMBOSIS AND VASCULAR BIOLOGY, 41(10), 2513-2515.Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health). doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.121.316802.

Satoh, T., Wang, L., Espinosa-Diez, C., Wang, B., Hahn, S.A., Noda, K., Rochon, E.R., Dent, M.R., Levine, A.R., Baust, J.J., Wyman, S., Wu, Y.L., Triantafyllou, G.A., Tang, Y., Reynolds, M., Shiva, S., St Hilaire, C., Gomez, D., Goncharov, D.A., Goncharova, E.A., Chan, S.Y., Straub, A.C., Lai, Y.C., McTiernan, C.F., & Gladwin, M.T. (2021). Metabolic Syndrome Mediates ROS-miR-193b-NFYA-Dependent Downregulation of Soluble Guanylate Cyclase and Contributes to Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction. CIRCULATION, 144(8), 615-637.Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health). doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.053889.

III, M.W.J., Chu, C.C., Cuevas, R.A., Callahan, J., Wong, R., Regan, C., Boufford, C.K., Sur, S., Liu, M., Gomez, D., MacTaggart, J.N., Kamenskiy, A., Boehm, M., & St Hilaire, C. (2020). Dysregulation of FOXO1 (Forkhead Box O1 Protein) Drives Calcification in Arterial Calcification due to Deficiency of CD73 and Is Present in Peripheral Artery Disease. ARTERIOSCLEROSIS THROMBOSIS AND VASCULAR BIOLOGY, 40(7), 1680-1694.Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health). doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.119.313765.

St Hilaire, C. (2020). Retinoids Dissolving the Calcification Paradox. ARTERIOSCLEROSIS THROMBOSIS AND VASCULAR BIOLOGY, 40(3), 503-505.Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health). doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.119.313854.

Carlsten, M., Namazi, A., Reger, R., Levy, E., Berg, M., St Hilaire, C., & Childs, R.W. (2019). Bortezomib sensitizes multiple myeloma to NK cells via ER-stress-induced suppression of HLA-E and upregulation of DR5. ONCOIMMUNOLOGY, 8(2), e1534664.Informa UK Limited. doi: 10.1080/2162402X.2018.1534664.

Joolharzadeh, P., & St Hilaire, C. (2019). CD73 (Cluster of Differentiation 73) and the Differences Between Mice and Humans. ARTERIOSCLEROSIS THROMBOSIS AND VASCULAR BIOLOGY, 39(3), 339-348.Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health). doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.118.311579.

Gomez, D., Baylis, R.A., Durgin, B.G., Newman, A.A.C., Alencar, G.F., Mahan, S., St Hilaire, C., Mueller, W., Waisman, A., Francis, S.E., Pinteaux, E., Randolph, G.J., Gram, H., & Owens, G.K. (2018). Interleukin-1β has atheroprotective effects in advanced atherosclerotic lesions of mice. NATURE MEDICINE, 24(9), 1418-+.Springer Science and Business Media LLC. doi: 10.1038/s41591-018-0124-5.

Hortells, L., Sur, S., & St Hilaire, C. (2018). Cell Phenotype Transitions in Cardiovascular Calcification. FRONTIERS IN CARDIOVASCULAR MEDICINE, 5, 27.Frontiers Media SA. doi: 10.3389/fcvm.2018.00027.

Xue, Y., St Hilaire, C., Hortells, L., Phillippi, J.A., Sant, V., & Sant, S. (2017). Shape-Specific Nanoceria Mitigate Oxidative Stress-Induced Calcification in Primary Human Valvular Interstitial Cell Culture. CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR BIOENGINEERING, 10(5), 483-500.Springer Science and Business Media LLC. doi: 10.1007/s12195-017-0495-6.

Garland, B.T., Boehm, M., Grayson, P.C., Hilaire, C.S., Brofferio, A., & Starnes, B.W. (2016). Abnormal molecular response to Takayasu arteritis causing extensive large-vessel calcification. J Vasc Surg Cases Innov Tech, 2(4), 190-192.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.jvscit.2016.05.004.

Hilaire, C.S., Liberman, M., Miller, J.D., & Comm, E.C. (2016). Bidirectional Translation in Cardiovascular Calcification. ARTERIOSCLEROSIS THROMBOSIS AND VASCULAR BIOLOGY, 36(3), E19-E24.Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health). doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.115.307056.

Jin, H., St Hilaire, C., Huang, Y., Yang, D., Dmitrieva, N.I., Negro, A., Schwartzbeck, R., Liu, Y., Yu, Z., Walts, A., Davaine, J.M., Lee, D.Y., Donahue, D., Hsu, K.S., Chen, J., Cheng, T., Gahl, W., Chen, G., & Boehm, M. (2016). Increased activity of TNAP compensates for reduced adenosine production and promotes ectopic calcification in the genetic disease ACDC. SCIENCE SIGNALING, 9(458), ra121.American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). doi: 10.1126/scisignal.aaf9109.

Roman, B.L., & St Hilaire, C. (2016). Catching a Disease: A Molecular Trap as a Therapy for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE, 194(9), 1047-1049.American Thoracic Society. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201605-0920ED.

Boehm, M., & Hilaire, C.S. (2015). Vascular Genetics. In PanVascular Medicine. (pp. 53-88).Springer Berlin Heidelberg. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-37078-6_4.

Cooley, B.C., Nevado, J., Mellad, J., Yang, D., St Hilaire, C., Negro, A., Fang, F., Chen, G., San, H., Walts, A.D., Schwartzbeck, R.L., Taylor, B., Lanzer, J.D., Wragg, A., Elagha, A., Beltran, L.E., Berry, C., Feil, R., Virmani, R., Ladich, E., Kovacic, J.C., & Boehm, M. (2014). TGF-β Signaling Mediates Endothelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EndMT) During Vein Graft Remodeling. SCIENCE TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE, 6(227), 227ra34.American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3006927.

Cooley, B.C., Nevado, J., Mellad, J., Yang, D., St Hilaire, C., Negro, A., Fang, F., Chen, G., San, H., Walts, A.D., Schwartzbeck, R.L., Taylor, B., Lanzer, J.D., Wragg, A., Elagha, A., Beltran, L.E., Berry, C., Feil, R., Virmani, R., Ladich, E., Kovacic, J.C., & Boehm, M. (2014). Untitled. SCIENCE TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE, 6(227).

Lanzer, P., Boehm, M., Sorribas, V., Thiriet, M., Janzen, J., Zeller, T., St Hilaire, C., & Shanahan, C. (2014). Medial vascular calcification revisited: review and perspectives. EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL, 35(23), 1515-1U24.Oxford University Press (OUP). doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehu163.

Liu, Y., Jesus, A.A., Marrero, B., Yang, D., Ramsey, S.E., Sanchez, G.A.M., Tenbrock, K., Wittkowski, H., Jones, O.Y., Kuehn, H.S., Lee, C.C.R., DiMattia, M.A., Cowen, E.W., Gonzalez, B., Palmer, I., DiGiovanna, J.J., Biancotto, A., Kim, H., Tsai, W.L., Trier, A.M., Huang, Y., Stone, D.L., Hill, S., Kim, H.J., St Hilaire, C., Gurprasad, S., Plass, N., Chapelle, D., Horkayne-Szakaly, I., Foell, D., Barysenka, A., Candotti, F., Holland, S.M., Hughes, J.D., Mehmet, H., Issekutz, A.C., Raffeld, M., McElwee, J., Fontana, J.R., Minniti, C.P., Moir, S., Kastner, D.L., Gadina, M., Steven, A.C., Wingfield, P.T., Brooks, S.R., Rosenzweig, S.D., Fleisher, T.A., Deng, Z., Boehm, M., Paller, A.S., & Goldbach-Mansky, R. (2014). Activated STING in a Vascular and Pulmonary Syndrome. NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, 371(6), 507-518.Massachusetts Medical Society. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1312625.

Negro, A., St. Hilaire, C., & Boehm, M. (2012). Cell-Based Regenerative Therapies: Role of Major Histocompatibility Complex-1 Antigen. In Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells,Volume 3. (pp. 173-178).Springer Netherlands. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-2415-0_16.

Boehm, M., St Hilaire, C., & Gahl, W.A. (2011). NT5E Mutations and Arterial Calcifications REPLY. NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, 364(16), 1579-1580.

Eltzschig, H.K., & Robson, S.C. (2011). NT5E Mutations and Arterial Calcifications. NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, 364(16), 1577-1578. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc1102515.

Hofbauer, L.C., Hamann, C., & Schoppet, M. (2011). NT5E Mutations and Arterial Calcifications. NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, 364(16), 1578. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc1102515.

Markello, T.C., Pak, L.K., St Hilaire, C., Dorward, H., Ziegler, S.G., Chen, M.Y., Chaganti, K., Nussbaum, R.L., Boehm, M., & Gahl, W.A. (2011). Vascular pathology of medial arterial calcifications in NT5E deficiency: Implications for the role of adenosine in pseudoxanthoma elasticum. MOLECULAR GENETICS AND METABOLISM, 103(1), 44-50.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2011.01.018.

Markello, T.C., St Hilaire, C., Ziegler, S.G., Nussbaum, R.L., Boehm, M., & Gahl, W.A. (2011). Reply to Professor Leftheriotis et al. MOLECULAR GENETICS AND METABOLISM, 103(3), 305.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2011.04.008.

Riksen, N.P., & Rongen, G.A. (2011). NT5E mutations and arterial calcifications. N Engl J Med, 364(16), 1579.Massachusetts Medical Society. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc1102515.

Riksen, N.P., & Rongen, G.A. (2011). NT5E Mutations and Arterial Calcifications. NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, 364(16), 1579. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc1102515.

Schrader, J. (2011). NT5E Mutations and Arterial Calcifications. NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, 364(16), 1578-1579.

St Hilaire, C., Ziegler, S.G., Markello, T.C., Brusco, A., Groden, C., Gill, F., Carlson-Donohoe, H., Lederman, R.J., Chen, M.Y., Yang, D., Siegenthaler, M.P., Arduino, C., Mancini, C., Freudenthal, B., Stanescu, H.C., Zdebik, A.A., Chaganti, R.K., Nussbaum, R.L., Kleta, R., Gahl, W.A., & Boehm, M. (2011). NT5E Mutations and Arterial Calcifications. NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, 364(5), 432-442.Massachusetts Medical Society. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0912923.

Zylka, M.J., & Sowa, N.A. (2011). NT5E Mutations and Arterial Calcifications. NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, 364(16), 1579. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc1102515.

Kovacic, J.C., Gupta, R., Lee, A.C., Ma, M., Fang, F., Tolbert, C.N., Walts, A.D., Beltran, L.E., San, H., Chen, G., St Hilaire, C., & Boehm, M. (2010). Stat3-dependent acute Rantes production in vascular smooth muscle cells modulates inflammation following arterial injury in mice. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION, 120(1), 303-314.American Society for Clinical Investigation. doi: 10.1172/JCI40364.

Hilaire, C.S., Carroll, S.H., Chen, H., & Ravid, K. (2009). Mechanisms of Induction of Adenosine Receptor Genes and Its Functional Significance. JOURNAL OF CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY, 218(1), 35-44.Wiley. doi: 10.1002/jcp.21579.

Nguyen, H.G., Makitalo, M., Yang, D., Chinnappan, D., Hilaire, C.S., & Ravid, K. (2009). Deregulated Aurora-B induced tetraploidy promotes tumorigenesis. FASEB JOURNAL, 23(8), 2741-2748.Wiley. doi: 10.1096/fj.09-130963.

Hilaire, C.S., Koupenova, M., Carroll, S.H., Smith, B.D., & Ravid, K. (2008). TNF-α upregulates the A2B adenosine receptor gene:: The role of NAD(P)H oxidase 4. BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS, 375(3), 292-296.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.07.059.

Hilaire, C.S., Yang, D., Schreiber, B.M., & Ravid, K. (2008). B-Myb regulates the A2B adenosine receptor in vascular smooth muscle cells. JOURNAL OF CELLULAR BIOCHEMISTRY, 103(6), 1962-1974.Wiley. doi: 10.1002/jcb.21586.

Hurtado, P.A., Vora, S., Sume, S.S., Yang, D., Hilaire, C.S., Guo, Y., Palamakumbura, A.H., Schreiber, B.M., Ravid, K., & Trackman, P.C. (2008). Lysyl oxidase propeptide inhibits smooth muscle cell signaling and proliferation. BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS, 366(1), 156-161.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.11.116.

Yang, D., McCrann, D.J., Nguyen, H., Hilaire, C.S., DePinho, R.A., Jones, M.R., & Ravid, K. (2007). Increased polyploidy in aortic vascular smooth muscle cells during aging is marked by cellular senescence. AGING CELL, 6(2), 257-260.Wiley. doi: 10.1111/j.1474-9726.2007.00274.x.

Hazony, Y., Lu, J., St Hilaire, C., & Ravid, K. (2006). Hematopoietic gene promoters subjected to a group-combinatorial study of DNA samples: identification of a megakaryocytic selective DNA signature. NUCLEIC ACIDS RESEARCH, 34(16), 4416-4428.Oxford University Press (OUP). doi: 10.1093/nar/gkl578.

Yang, D., Zhang, Y., Nguyen, H.G., Koupenova, M., Chauhan, A.K., Makitalo, M., Jones, M.R., Hilaire, C.S., Seldin, D.C., Toselli, P., Larnperti, E., Schreiber, B.M., Gavras, H., Wagner, D.D., & Ravid, K. (2006). The A2B adenosine receptor protects against inflammation and excessive vascular adhesion. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION, 116(7), 1913-1923.American Society for Clinical Investigation. doi: 10.1172/JCI27933.

Nagata, Y., Jones, M.R., Nguyen, H.G., McCrann, D.J., St Hilaire, C., Schreiber, B.M., Hashimoto, A., Inagaki, M., Earnshaw, W.C., Todokoro, K., & Ravid, K. (2005). Vascular smooth muscle cell polyploidization involves changes in chromosome passenger proteins and an endomitotic cell cycle. EXPERIMENTAL CELL RESEARCH, 305(2), 277-291.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.yexcr.2004.12.028.

Vallée, M.A., Keating, P., Smith, R.S., & St-Hilaire, C. (2004). Estimating depth and model type using the continuous wavelet transform of magnetic data. GEOPHYSICS, 69(1), 191-199.Society of Exploration Geophysicists. doi: 10.1190/1.1649387.

Al-Baradie, R., Yamada, K., St Hilaire, C., Chan, W.M., Andrews, C., McIntosh, N., Nakano, M., Martonyi, E.J., Raymond, W.R., Okumura, S., Okihiro, M.M., & Engle, E.C. (2002). Duane radial ray syndrome (Okihiro syndrome) maps to 20q13 and results from mutations in SALL4, a new member of the SAL family. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS, 71(5), 1195-1199.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1086/343821.


Hilaire, C.S. (2017). Autophagy in Vascular Calcification. In ARTERIOSCLEROSIS THROMBOSIS AND VASCULAR BIOLOGY, 37.

St Hilaire, C., Kyaw, M.T., & Boehm, M. (2013). Modulation of IGF2-mediated PI3K/MEK signaling is implicated in the vascular calcification of a rare monogenetic disease. In ANGIOGENESIS, 16(1), (p. 264).

Engle, E.C., Al-Baradie, R., St Hilaire, C., Moy, R., Xu, P.X., & Maas, R. (2002). Linkage mapping and candidate gene analysis of Duane syndrome with radial ray anomalities (Okihiro syndrome). In JOURNAL OF THE NEUROLOGICAL SCIENCES, 199, (pp. S98-S99).