headshot

Evan Granite

Professor
Chem/Petroleum Engineering

overview

• Trace Elements in Coal and Coal Byproducts • Separations research including sorbents, catalysts, photochemical methods, and electrochemical membranes • Flue gas cleanup research and development, including mercury and carbon dioxide capture • Fuel gas cleanup research and development, including mercury, arsenic, selenium, phosphorus and carbon dioxide removal • Oxygen separation research, including sorbent development • Rare earth and other critical element detection and separation research • Broad experimental background in heterogeneous catalysis and sorbents, especially noble metals, metal oxides, and activated carbons • Strong background in the usage and theory of solid electrolyte chemical sensors, including zirconia-based oxygen sensors and alumina-based hydrogen sensors • Experience in using analytical equipment and instrumentation, such as solid electrolyte sensors, gas chromatographs, mass spectrometers, atomic fluorescence spectrophotometers, and gas flow systems • Knowledge of petroleum, natural gas, coal, municipal solid waste, and municipal sludge processing • Experience with photochemical reactions involving ozone and mercury • Experience and knowledge of carbon sequestration research • Project proposal writing and review • Enjoy working with others, and motivating colleagues to excel

about

(2021) Invited to Teach "A Short Course on Catalysts and Sorbents" for 45th International Conference on Clean Energy.

(2021) Invited to Teach "Introduction to Natural Gas Processing" for 45th International Conference on Clean Energy.

(2021) Most Cited Paper in Minerals.

(2020) Top 2% Among Scientists Worldwide in Career Publication Citation Impact.

(2020) Technical Advisor UN Global Mercury Partnership.

(2020) Invited Seminar "Coal in 21st Century" University of Rochester.

(2020) Nominated for Samuel J. Heyman Service to America Medal.

(2019) Invited to Teach “A Short Course on Catalysis and Sorbents”, for the 44th International Technical Conference on Clean Energy, Clearwater, Florida, June 2019.

(2019) Nominated for Samuel J. Heyman Service to America Medal.

(2018) Invited Presentation American Coal Ash Association 2018 Winter Meeting.

(2017) Plenary speaker at the 34th International Pittsburgh Coal Conference.

(2017) Invited Seminar Carnegie Mellon University.

(2016) Invited Seminar Geneva College.

(2012) Invited Seminar Rice University.

(2012) Invited Seminar University of Rochester.

(2011) Invited Seminar West Virginia University.

(2011) Activated Carbon Hall of Fame.

(2011) Invited Seminar Stanford University.

(2011) Invited Seminar University of Pittsburgh.

(2010) Guest Editor, Fuel, Special Issue, 2009 AIChE Spring National Meeting.

(2010) Named a “Top 12 Innovator in the National Labs” by Innovation Magazine.

(2009) Laboratory Director's Award for Innovation.

(2009) R&D 100 Award, Thief Process for Mercury Removal from Flue Gas.

(2009) Invited Seminar Geneva College.

(2009) National Federal Laboratory Consortium Technology Transfer Award.

(2008) Guest Editor, Main Group Chemistry.

(2008) Invited Seminar WPI.

(2008) Laboratory Director's Award for Innovation.

(2008) R&D 100 Award, PG Sorbents for Mercury, Arsenic and Selenium Capture.

(2008) Plenary Speaker International Gas Cleaning High Temperature Conference-7.

(2008) National Federal Laboratory Consortium Technology Transfer Award.

(2007) Invited Speaker Annual Joint AWMA-AIChE Pittsburgh Section Meeting.

(2005) Laboratory Director's Award for Innovation.

(2005) National Federal Laboratory Consortium Technology Transfer Award.

(2004) Invited Seminar Manhattan College.

(2001) Federal Executive Board Excellence in Government Gold Medal.

(1998) Best Paper Award, 15th Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference.

PhD Chemical Engineering, University of Rochester

MS Chemical Engineering, Cooper Union

BS Chemical Engineering, Cooper Union

Senior, C., Granite, E., Linak, W., & Seames, W. (2020). Chemistry of Trace Inorganic Elements in Coal Combustion Systems: A Century of Discovery. ENERGY & FUELS, 34(12), 15141-15168.American Chemical Society (ACS). doi: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.0c02375.

Burgess, W.A., Keller, M.J., Lekse, J.W., Howard, B.H., Roth, E.A., & Granite, E.J. (2018). Effect of Pre-reaction Ball Milling on Kinetics of Lanthanum Phosphate Roasting with Sodium Carbonate. INDUSTRIAL & ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY RESEARCH, 57(18), 6088-6096.American Chemical Society (ACS). doi: 10.1021/acs.iecr.8b00249.

Lin, R., Soong, Y., & Granite, E.J. (2018). Evaluation of trace elements in US coals using the USGS COALQUAL database version 3.0. Part II: Non-REY critical elements. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COAL GEOLOGY, 192, 39-50.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.coal.2018.04.005.

Lin, R., Soong, Y., & Granite, E.J. (2018). Evaluation of trace elements in US coals using the USGS COALQUAL database version 3.0. Part I: Rare earth elements and yttrium (REY). INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COAL GEOLOGY, 192, 1-13.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.coal.2018.04.004.

Lin, R., Stuckman, M., Howard, B.H., Bank, T.L., Roth, E.A., Macala, M.K., Lopano, C., Soong, Y., & Granite, E.J. (2018). Application of sequential extraction and hydrothermal treatment for characterization and enrichment of rare earth elements from coal fly ash. FUEL, 232, 124-133.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2018.05.141.

Roth, E., Bank, T.L., & Granite, E. (2018). Investigation of Thulium and Other Rare Earth Element Mass Fractions in NIST SRM 1632a Bituminous Coal Reference Material by Quadrupole ICP-MS. Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research, 42(2), 263-269.Wiley. doi: 10.1111/ggr.12203.

Stuckman, M.Y., Lopano, C.L., & Granite, E.J. (2018). Distribution and speciation of rare earth elements in coal combustion by-products via synchrotron microscopy and spectroscopy. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COAL GEOLOGY, 195, 125-138.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.coal.2018.06.001.

Thompson, R.L., Bank, T., Montross, S., Roth, E., Howard, B., Verba, C., & Granite, E. (2018). Analysis of rare earth elements in coal fly ash using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy. Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy, 143, 1-11.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.sab.2018.02.009.

Granite, E.J. (2017). Comment on "Mercury Oxidation by UV Irradiation: Effect of Contact Time, UV Wavelength, and Moisture Content". INDUSTRIAL & ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY RESEARCH, 56(33), 9408-9409.American Chemical Society (ACS). doi: 10.1021/acs.iecr.7b02831.

Lin, R., Bank, T.L., Roth, E.A., Granite, E.J., & Soong, Y. (2017). Organic and inorganic associations of rare earth elements in central Appalachian coal. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COAL GEOLOGY, 179, 295-301.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.coal.2017.07.002.

Lin, R., Howard, B.H., Roth, E.A., Bank, T.L., Granite, E.J., & Soong, Y. (2017). Enrichment of rare earth elements from coal and coal by-products by physical separations. FUEL, 200, 506-520.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2017.03.096.

Roth, E., Bank, T., Howard, B., & Granite, E. (2017). Rare Earth Elements in Alberta Oil Sand Process Streams. ENERGY & FUELS, 31(5), 4714-4720.American Chemical Society (ACS). doi: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b03184.

Granite, E.J., Roth, E., & Alvin, M.A. (2016). Op-ed: Recovery of rare earths from coal and byproducts: A paradigm shift for coal research. Bridge, 46(3), 56-57.

Granite, E.J., Roth, E., & Alvin, M.A. (2016). Characterization and recovery of rare earths from coal and coal By-Products. EM: Air and Waste Management Association's Magazine for Environmental Managers, 66(June), 22-23.

Hower, J.C., Granite, E.J., Mayfield, D.B., Lewis, A.S., & Finkelman, R.B. (2016). Notes on Contributions to the Science of Rare Earth Element Enrichment in Coal and Coal Combustion Byproducts. MINERALS, 6(2), 32.MDPI AG. doi: 10.3390/min6020032.

Thompson, R.L., Bank, T., Roth, E., & Granite, E. (2016). Resolution of rare earth element interferences in fossil energy by-product samples using sector-field ICP-MS. Fuel, 185, 94-101.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2016.07.093.

Granite, E. (2014). Mercury Control. xxiii-xxvi.Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. doi: 10.1002/9783527658787.

Pennline, H.W., & Granite, E.J. (2014). Sorbents for Gasification Processes. In Mercury Control. (pp. 357-374).Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. doi: 10.1002/9783527658787.ch22.

Uffalussy, K.J., & Granite, E.J. (2014). Novel Capture Technologies: Non-carbon Sorbents and Photochemical Oxidations. In Mercury Control. (pp. 339-356).Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. doi: 10.1002/9783527658787.ch21.

Uffalussy, K.J., Miller, J.B., Howard, B.H., Stanko, D.C., Yin, C., & Granite, E.J. (2014). Arsenic Adsorption on Copper-Palladium Alloy Films. INDUSTRIAL & ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY RESEARCH, 53(18), 7821-7827.American Chemical Society (ACS). doi: 10.1021/ie404447b.

Rupp, E.C., Granite, E.J., & Stanko, D.C. (2012). Catalytic formation of carbonyl sulfide during warm gas clean-up of simulated coal-derived fuel gas with Pd/gamma-Al2O3 sorbents. FUEL, 92(1), 211-215.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2011.06.055.

Baltrus, J.P., Granite, E.J., Rupp, E.C., Stanko, D.C., Howard, B., & Pennline, H.W. (2011). Effect of palladium dispersion on the capture of toxic components from fuel gas by palladium-alumina sorbents. FUEL, 90(5), 1992-1998.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2011.01.001.

Poulston, S., Granite, E.J., Pennline, H.W., Hamilton, H., & Smith, A.W.J. (2011). Palladium based sorbents for high temperature arsine removal from fuel gas. FUEL, 90(10), 3118-3121.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2011.05.012.

Baltrus, J.P., Granite, E.J., Pennline, H.W., Stanko, D., Hamilton, H., Rowsell, L., Poulston, S., Smith, A., & Chu, W. (2010). Surface characterization of palladium-alumina sorbents for high-temperature capture of mercury and arsenic from fuel gas. FUEL, 89(6), 1323-1325.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2009.09.030.

Pennline, H.W., Granite, E.J., Luebke, D.R., Kitchin, J.R., Landon, J., & Weiland, L.M. (2010). Separation of CO2 from flue gas using electrochemical cells. FUEL, 89(6), 1307-1314.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2009.11.036.

Rupp, E.C., Granite, E.J., & Stanko, D.C. (2010). Method for Detection of Trace Metal and Metalloid Contaminants in Coal-Generated Fuel Gas Using Gas Chromatography/Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry. ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, 82(14), 6315-6317.American Chemical Society (ACS). doi: 10.1021/ac1012249.

Shekhawat, D., Berry, D.A., Pennline, H.W., Granite, E.J., & Spivey, J.J. (2010). Advanced Fossil Energy Utilization Preface. FUEL, 89(6), 1185-1186.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2009.12.022.

Pekney, N.J., Martello, D., Schroeder, K., & Granite, E. (2009). Environmental chamber measurements of mercury flux from coal utilization by-products. Fuel, 88(5), 890-897.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2008.11.004.

Baltrus, J.P., Granite, E.J., Stanko, D.C., & Pennline, H.W. (2008). Surface characterization of Pd/Al2O3 sorbents for mercury capture from fuel gas. MAIN GROUP CHEMISTRY, 7(3), 217-225.IOS Press. doi: 10.1080/10241220802509432.

Granite, E.J. (2008). Mercury and Other Trace Elements in Fuel: Emissions and Control PREFACE. MAIN GROUP CHEMISTRY, 7(3), 167.IOS Press. doi: 10.1080/10241220802659583.

Granite, E.J., & Presto, A.A. (2008). Response to comment on "Impact of Sulfur Oxides on Mercury Capture by Activated Carbon". ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, 42(3), 972-973.American Chemical Society (ACS). doi: 10.1021/es7023093.

Granite, E.J., & Preston, A.A. (2008). Comment on the "Role of SO2 for Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal Combustion Flue Gas by Activated Carbon". ENERGY & FUELS, 22(5), 3557-3558.American Chemical Society (ACS). doi: 10.1021/ef8005355.

Granite, E.J., King, W.P., Stanko, D.C., & Pennline, H.W. (2008). Implications of mercury interactions with band-gap semiconductor oxides. MAIN GROUP CHEMISTRY, 7(3), 227-237.IOS Press. doi: 10.1080/10241220802630568.

Presto, A.A., & Granite, E.J. (2008). Noble Metal Catalysts for Mercury Oxidation in Utility Flue Gas GOLD, PALLADIUM AND PLATINUM FORMULATIONS. PLATINUM METALS REVIEW, 52(3), 144-154.Johnson Matthey. doi: 10.1595/147106708X319256.

Granite, E.J., Freeman, M.C., Hargis, R.A., O'Dowd, W.J., & Pennline, H.W. (2007). The thief process for mercury removal from flue gas. JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, 84(4), 628-634.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2006.06.022.

Poulston, S., Granite, E.J., Pennline, H.W., Myers, C.R., Stanko, D.P., Hamilton, H., Rowsell, L., Smith, A.W.J., Ilkenhans, T., & Chu, W. (2007). Metal sorbents for high temperature mercury capture from fuel gas. FUEL, 86(14), 2201-2203.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2007.05.015.

Presto, A.A., & Granite, E.J. (2007). Impact of sulfur oxides on mercury capture by activated carbon. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, 41(18), 6579-6584.American Chemical Society (ACS). doi: 10.1021/es0708316.

Presto, A.A., Granite, E.J., & Karash, A. (2007). Further investigation of the impact of sulfur oxides on mercury capture by activated carbon. INDUSTRIAL & ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY RESEARCH, 46(24), 8273-8276.American Chemical Society (ACS). doi: 10.1021/ie071045c.

Granite, E.J., Myers, C.R., King, W.P., Stanko, D.C., & Pennline, H.W. (2006). Sorbents for mercury capture from fuel gas with application to gasification systems. INDUSTRIAL & ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY RESEARCH, 45(13), 4844-4848.American Chemical Society (ACS). doi: 10.1021/ie060456a.

O'Dowd, W.J., Pennline, H.W., Freeman, M.C., Granite, E.J., Hargis, R.A., Lacher, C.J., & Karash, A. (2006). A technique to control mercury from flue gas: The Thief Process. FUEL PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY, 87(12), 1071-1084.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.fuproc.2006.05.006.

Presto, A.A., & Granite, E.J. (2006). Survey of catalysts for oxidation of mercury in flue gas. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, 40(18), 5601-5609.American Chemical Society (ACS). doi: 10.1021/es060504i.

Presto, A.A., & Granite, E.J. (2006). Survey of catalysts for oxidation of mercury in flue gas. Environmental Science and Technology, 40(18), 5601-5609. doi: 10.1021/es060504i.

Presto, A.A., Granite, E.J., Karash, A., Hargis, R.A., O'Dow, W.J., & Pennline, H.W. (2006). A Kinetic Approach to the Catalytic Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas†. Energy & Fuels, 20(5), 1941-1945.American Chemical Society (ACS). doi: 10.1021/ef060207z.

Manivannan, A., Ramakrishnan, L., Seehra, M.S., Granite, E., Butler, J.E., Tryk, D.A., & Fujishima, A. (2005). Mercury detection at boron doped diamond electrodes using a rotating disk technique. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 577(2), 287-293.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.jelechem.2004.12.006.

Maroto-Valer, M.M., Zhang, Y.Z., Granite, E.J., Tang, Z., & Pennline, H.W. (2005). Effect of porous structure and surface functionality on the mercury capacity of a fly ash carbon and its activated sample. FUEL, 84(1), 105-108.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2004.07.005.

McLarnon, C.R., Granite, E.J., & Pennline, H.W. (2005). The PCO process for photochemical removal of mercury from flue gas. FUEL PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY, 87(1), 85-89.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.fuproc.2005.07.001.

Feeley, T.J., Murphy, J.T., Hoffmann, J.W., Granite, E.J., & Renninger, S.A. (2003). DOE/NETL's mercury control technolgy research program for coal-fired power plants. EM: Air and Waste Management Association's Magazine for Environmental Managers, (OCT.), 16-23.

White, C.M., Strazisar, B.R., Granite, E.J., Hoffman, J.S., & Pennline, H.W. (2003). Separation and capture of CO2 from large stationary sources and sequestration in geological formations - Coalbeds and deep saline aquifers. JOURNAL OF THE AIR & WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION, 53(6), 645-715.Informa UK Limited. doi: 10.1080/10473289.2003.10466206.

White, C.M., Strazisar, B.R., Granite, E.J., Hoffman, J.S., & Pennline, H.W. (2003). Separation and Capture of CO2 from Large Stationary Sources and Sequestration in Geological Formations. EM: Air and Waste Management Association's Magazine for Environmental Managers, (JUNE), 29-34.

Granite, E.J., & Pennline, H.W. (2002). Photochemical removal of mercury from flue gas. INDUSTRIAL & ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY RESEARCH, 41(22), 5470-5476.American Chemical Society (ACS). doi: 10.1021/ie020251b.

Granite, E.J., Pennline, H.W., & Hargis, R.A. (2000). Novel sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas. INDUSTRIAL & ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY RESEARCH, 39(4), 1020-1029.American Chemical Society (ACS). doi: 10.1021/ie990758v.

Granite, E.J., Pennline, H.W., & Hoffman, J.S. (1999). Effects of photochemical formation of mercuric oxide. INDUSTRIAL & ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY RESEARCH, 38(12), 5034-5037.American Chemical Society (ACS). doi: 10.1021/ie9904495.

Granite, E., & Jorne, J. (1991). A novel method for studying electrochemically induced cold fusion using a deuteron-conducting solid electrolyte. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry and Interfacial Electrochemistry, 317(1-2), 285-290.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/0022-0728(91)85021-g.

Burgess, W., Macala, M., Spencer, C., Howard, B., Keller, M., Ladwig, K., & Granite, E. (2019). Effect of acid and ca content on extractability of rare earth elements from coal ash. In 36th Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference: Clean Coal-Based Energy/Fuels and the Environment, PCC 2019.

Granite, E.J. (2019). Brief review of thermal graphitization of coals and carbons. In 36th Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference: Clean Coal-Based Energy/Fuels and the Environment, PCC 2019.

Natesakhawat, S., & Granite, E.J. (2019). Development of internal surface area during pyrolysis and gasification of low-rank coals. In 36th Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference: Clean Coal-Based Energy/Fuels and the Environment, PCC 2019.

Soong, Y., Line, R., Howard, B., Keller, M., Roth, E., Wang, P., & Granite, E. (2019). Leaching of rare earth elements and yttrium from a central Appalachian coal and the ashes obtained at 550-950 oC. In ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, 258.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.jre.2021.02.012.

Stuckman, M., Lopano, C., Hedin, B., Howard, B., & Granite, E. (2019). Characterization and recovery of rare earth elements from Powder River basin coal ash. In 36th Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference: Clean Coal-Based Energy/Fuels and the Environment, PCC 2019.

Burgess, W., Keller, M., Lekse, J., Roth, E., Howard, B., & Granite, E. (2017). Effect of pre-reaction ball milling of LaPO4*H2O + Na2CO3 on kinetic parameters of the LaPO4 roasting reaction. In 34th Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference: Coal - Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development, PCC 2017, 2017-September.

Granite, E., Roth, E., Bank, T., & Alvin, M.A. (2017). Determination of rare earths in coal by-products. In 34th Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference: Coal - Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development, PCC 2017, 2017-September.

Granite, E., Roth, E., Bank, T., Howard, B., Baltrus, J., Benyahia, S., Summers, M., Lin, R., Macala, M., Keller, M., Burgess, W., Bennett, J., Nakano, J., Thompson, R., Rothenberger, K., Tarka, T., & Alvin, M.A. (2017). R&IC rare earth overview. In 34th Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference: Coal - Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development, PCC 2017, 2017-September.

Granite, E.J. (2017). Trace elements in coal - a magical journey across the periodic table. In 34th Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference: Coal - Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development, PCC 2017, 2017-September.

Hamilton, H.G.C., Poulston, S., Rowsell, L., Chu, W., Smith, A.W.J., Socha, J., Wu, T., Datta, S., Lambrecht, R.C., Wheeldon, J.M., Uffalussy, K.J., Pennline, H.W., Roth, E., Howard, B., & Granite, E.J. (2017). Pilot-scale capture of mercury, arsenic, and selenium from warm syngas at elevated pressures by palladium sorbents. In 34th Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference: Coal - Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development, PCC 2017, 2017-September.

Lin, R., Bank, T., Roth, E., Granite, E., & Soong, Y. (2017). Organic and inorganic association of rare earth elements in coal. In 34th Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference: Coal - Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development, PCC 2017, 2017-September.

Roth, E., Lekse, J., & Granite, E. (2017). Effects of B-site substitutions on BaFeO3-δperovskites for oxygen separation from air. In 34th Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference: Coal - Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development, PCC 2017, 2017-September.

Stuckman, M., Lopano, C., & Granite, E. (2017). Elucidating distribution and speciation of Rare earth elements in coal utilization by-products utilizing Synchrotron microscopy and spectroscopy. In 34th Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference: Coal - Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development, PCC 2017, 2017-September.

Granite, E., Roth, E., Natesakhawat, S., Stanko, D., & Thomas, C. (2014). Development of surface area during pyrolysis and combustion of lignite. In 31st Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference: Coal - Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development, PCC 2014.

Granite, E.J. (2014). Brief review of catalytic oxidative coupling of methane to ethane and ethene. In International Congress on Energy 2014, ICE 2014 - Topical Conference at the 2014 AIChE Annual Meeting, 1, (pp. 591-593).

Munson, C.L., Indrakanti, P., Ramezan, M., Granite, E., & Tennant, J. (2014). Evaluation of Palladium-based sorbents for trace mercury removal in electricity generation. In 31st Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference: Coal - Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development, PCC 2014.

Munson, C.L., Indrakanti, P., Ramezan, M., Granite, E., & Tennant, J. (2014). Evaluation of Palladium-Based Sorbents for Trace Mercury Removal in Electricity Generation. In International Journal of Clean Coal and Energy, 03(04), (pp. 65-76).Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. doi: 10.4236/ijcce.2014.34007.

Roth, E., LeDonne, A., Stanko, D., Lekse, J., Thomas, C., Hedges, S., & Granite, E. (2014). Novel sorbents for oxygen separation from air. In 31st Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference: Coal - Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development, PCC 2014.

Uffalussy, K.J., Granite, E.J., Pennline, H.W., Socha, J., Wu, T., Datta, S., Lambrecht, R.C., Wheeldon, J.M., Hamilton, H.G.C., Poulston, S., Rowsell, L., Chu, W., & Smith, A.W.J. (2014). Pilot-scale capture of mercury, arsenic, and selenium from warm syngas at elevated pressures by palladium sorbents. In 31st Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference: Coal - Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development, PCC 2014.

Hajduk, M., Roth, E., & Granite, E. (2013). Magnetic separation of oxygen from air. In 30th Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference 2013, PCC 2013, 5, (pp. 3769-3777).

Roth, E., Hajduk, M., & Granite, E. (2013). Biomimetic separation of oxygen from air. In 30th Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference 2013, PCC 2013, 5, (pp. 3760-3768).

Roth, E., Hajduk, M., & Granite, E. (2013). Overview of oxygen generator materials. In 30th Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference 2013, PCC 2013, 5, (pp. 3752-3759).

Roth, E., Hajduk, M., Uffalussy, K., & Granite, E. (2013). The brin process for separation of oxygen from air. In 30th Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference 2013, PCC 2013, 5, (pp. 3735-3738).

Rupp, E.C., Granite, E.J., & Stanko, D.C. (2013). Laboratory scale studies of Pd/gamma-Al2O3 sorbents for the removal of trace contaminants from coal-derived fuel gas at elevated temperatures. In FUEL, 108, (pp. 131-136).Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2010.12.013.

Granite, E.J., Pennline, H.W., Rupp, E., Baltrus, J.P., Stanko, D.C., Guenther, C., Berry, D., Tennant, J., Hamilton, H., Poulston, S., Rowsell, L., Chu, W., Smith, A., Matthey, J., Wu, T., Datta, S., Lambrecht, B., & Wheeldon, J. (2012). Palladium sorbents for high temperature capture of mercury, arsenic, selenium and phosphorus from fuel gas. In 29th Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference 2012, PCC 2012, 1, (pp. 536-565).

Rupp, E.C., Granite, E.J., & Stanko, D.C. (2011). Catalytic formation of carbonyl sulfide during treatment of coal-derived fuel gas with Pd/γ-Al2O3 sorbents. In 11AIChE - 2011 AIChE Spring Meeting and 7th Global Congress on Process Safety, Conference Proceedings.

Wu, T., Datta, S., Lambrecht, R.C., Wheeldon, J., Hamilton, H., Rowsell, L., Poulston, S., Smith, A., Granite, E.J., & Pennline, H.W. (2011). Field tests of palladium sorbents for high temperature capture of mercury, arsenic, selenium from syngas. In 11AIChE - 2011 AIChE Spring Meeting and 7th Global Congress on Process Safety, Conference Proceedings.

Rangwala, A.S., & Granite, E.J. (2010). Utilization of carbon dioxide towards control/suppression of underground coal fires. In AIChE Annual Meeting, Conference Proceedings.

Rupp, E.C., & Granite, E.J. (2010). Possible use for CO2 captured from coal derived flue gas: Reforming of methane in electric discharge plasmas. In AIChE Annual Meeting, Conference Proceedings.

Rupp, E.C., & Granite, E.J. (2010). Possible use for CO2 captured from coal derived flue gas: Reforming of methane in electric discharge plasmas. In 10AIChE - 2010 AIChE Spring Meeting and 6th Global Congress on Process Safety.

Rupp, E.C., Granite, E.J., & Stanko, D. (2010). Real time detection of gaseous metal contaminants in coal flue and fuel gas. In 10AIChE - 2010 AIChE Spring Meeting and 6th Global Congress on Process Safety.

Rupp, E.C., Granite, E.J., & Stanko, D. (2010). Real time detection of gaseous metal contaminants in coal flue and fuel gas. In AIChE Annual Meeting, Conference Proceedings.

Rupp, E.C., Granite, E.J., Stanko, D., Baltrus, J.P., Pennline, H.W., Hamilton, H., Poulston, S., Rowsell, L., Smith, A., Chu, W., & Matthey, J. (2010). On-line studies of Pd based sorbents for the removal of gaseous metal contaminants: Capture and regeneration. In AIChE Annual Meeting, Conference Proceedings.

Baltrus, J.P., Granite, E.J., Stanko, D.C., & Pennline, H.W. (2009). Performance and characterization of supported metals for adsorption of toxic pollutants from fuel gas. In Proceedings of the Air and Waste Management Association's Annual Conference and Exhibition, AWMA, 2, (pp. 1357-1361).

Pennline, H.W., Granite, E.J., Luebke, D.R., Kitchin, J.R., Landon, J., & Weiland, L. (2009). Ancillary oxygen-fired combustion using electrochemical cells. In Proceedings of the Air and Waste Management Association's Annual Conference and Exhibition, AWMA, 4, (pp. 2886-2901).

Baltrus, J.P., Granite, E.J., Pennline, H.W., Stanko, D., Hamilton, H., Roswell, L., Poulston, S., Smith, A., & Chu, W. (2008). Surface characterization of palladium-alumina sorbents for high-temperature capture of mercury and arsenic from fuel gas. In Conference Proceedings - 2009 AIChE Spring National Meeting and 5th Global Congress on Process Safety.

Granite, E.J. (2008). Potential for fly ash to mitigate beach erosion and coastal flooding. In 25th Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference, PCC - Proceedings.

Granite, E.J., & Baltrus, J.P. (2008). Mercuric chloride based catalysts for oxidation of mercury in flue gas. In 25th Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference, PCC - Proceedings.

Granite, E.J., Bombaiski, L., Myers, C.R., Stanko, D.P., Pennline, H.W., Chu, W., Matthey, J., Hamilton, H., Rowsell, L., Poulston, S., Smith, A., & Ilkenhans, T. (2008). Palladium sorbents for high temperature capture of mercury, arsenic, selenium, and phosphorus from fuel gas. In 25th Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference, PCC - Proceedings.

Granite, E.J., Pennline, H.W., Stanko, D., Baltrus, J.P., Hamilton, H., Roswell, L., Poulston, S., Smith, A., & Chu, W. (2008). Palladium sorbents for high temperature capture of mercury, arsenic, selenium and phosphorus from fuel gas. In Conference Proceedings - 2009 AIChE Spring National Meeting and 5th Global Congress on Process Safety.

Pekney, N.J., Martello, D., Schroeder, K., & Granite, E. (2008). Mercury flux from coal utilization by-product samples. In 25th Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference, PCC - Proceedings.

Presto, A.A., & Granite, E.J. (2008). FUEL 34-Noble metal catalysts for oxidation of mercury in flue gas. In ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, 235.

Rangwala, A.S., Park, H., Joshi, K., Dembsey, N.A., & Granite, E.J. (2008). Estimation of thermal and kinetic parameters to model coal dust ignition. In 25th Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference, PCC - Proceedings.

Vimalchand, P., Morton, F.C., Datta, S., Lambrecht, R.C., Granite, E.J., Pennline, H.W., Stanko, D., Hamilton, H., Rowsell, L., Poulston, S., Smith, A., & Chu, W. (2008). Slipstream tests of palladium sorbents for high temperature capture of mercury, arsenic, selenium and phosphorous from fuel gas. In Conference Proceedings - 2009 AIChE Spring National Meeting and 5th Global Congress on Process Safety.

Layne, A.W., Alvin, M.A., Granite, E., Pennline, H.W., Siriwardane, R.V., Keairns, D., & Newby, R. (2007). Overview of contaminant removal from coal-derived syngas. In ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE), 6, (pp. 397-407). doi: 10.1115/IMECE200742165.

Layne, A.W., Alvin, M.A., Granite, E., Pennline, H.W., Siriwardane, R.V., Keairns, D., & Newby, R. (2007). Overview of Contaminant Removal From Coal-Derived Syngas. In Volume 6: Energy Systems: Analysis, Thermodynamics and Sustainability, 6, (pp. 397-407).ASMEDC. doi: 10.1115/imece2007-42165.

Pekney, N.J., Martello, D.V., Schroeder, K., & Granite, E. (2007). Environmental chamber measurements of mercury flux from coal utilization by-products. In 100th Annual Conference and Exhibition of the Air and Waste Management Association 2007, ACE 2007, 3, (pp. 1753-1757).

Presto, A.A., & Granite, E.J. (2007). Impact of sulfur oxides on mercury capture by activated carbons. In 100th Annual Conference and Exhibition of the Air and Waste Management Association 2007, ACE 2007, 6, (pp. 4234-4247).

Presto, A.A., & Granite, E.J. (2007). Bench-scale study of catalytic oxidation of mercury in flue gas. In 100th Annual Conference and Exhibition of the Air and Waste Management Association 2007, ACE 2007, 6, (pp. 4257-4263).

Granite, E.J. (2006). Semi-continuous detection of mercury in flue gas by photo-deposition. In 23rd Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference, PCC - Coal-Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development.

Granite, E.J., & Presto, A.A. (2006). Novel sorbents for removal of mercury from flue gas. In 23rd Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference, PCC - Coal-Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development.

Granite, E.J., Myers, C.R., King, W.P., Stanko, D.C., & Pennline, H.W. (2006). Sorbents for mercury capture from fuel gas with application to gasification systems. In 23rd Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference, PCC - Coal-Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development.

Granite, E.J., Myers, C.R., Stanko, D.C., & Pennline, H.W. (2006). Palladium sorbents for arsenic capture from fuel gas with application to gasification systems. In 23rd Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference, PCC - Coal-Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development.

Monnell, J.D., Vidic, R.D., Gang, D., Karash, A., & Granite, E.J. (2006). Recent advances in trace metal capture using micro and nano-scale sorbents. In 23rd Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference, PCC - Coal-Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development.

Presto, A.A., Granite, E.J., Karash, A., Hargis, R.A., O'Dowd, W.J., & Pennline, H.W. (2006). A kinetic approach to the catalytic oxidation of mercury in flue gas. In ENERGY & FUELS, 20(5), (pp. 1941-1945). doi: 10.1021/ef060207z.

Granite, E.J., & O'Brien, T. (2005). Review of novel methods for carbon dioxide separation from flue and fuel gases. In FUEL PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY, 86(14-15), (pp. 1423-1434).Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.fuproc.2005.01.001.

Granite, E.J., Freeman, M.C., Hargis, R.A., O'Dowd, W.J., & Pennline, H.W. (2005). The thief process for mercury removal from flue gas. In 22nd Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference 2005, PCC 2005, 1, (pp. 275-286).

Mclarnon, C.R., Granite, E.J., & Pennline, H.W. (2005). The PCO process for photochemical removal of mercury from flue gas. In 22nd Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference 2005, PCC 2005, 1, (pp. 261-274).

Granite, E.J. (2004). Review of novel methods for carbon dioxide separation from flue and fuel gases. In ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, 227(1), (p. U1085).

Granite, E.J. (2004). Review of novel methods for carbon dioxide separation from flue and fuel gases. In ACS National Meeting Book of Abstracts, 227(1).

Granite, E.J., Pennline, H.W., & King, W.P. (2004). Implications of mercury interactions with band-gap semiconductor oxides. In ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, 227, (p. U1083).

Granite, E.J., Pennline, H.W., O'Dowd, W.J., Freeman, M.C., & Hargis, R.A. (2004). The thief process for mercury removal from flue gas. In Combined Power Plant Air Pollutant Control Mega Symposium, (p. 1361).

McLarnon, C.R., Granite, E.J., & Pennline, H.W. (2004). Initial testing of photochemical oxidation for elemental mercury removal from subbituminous flue gas streams. In Combined Power Plant Air Pollutant Control Mega Symposium, (pp. 357-365).

O'Dowd, W.J., Hargis, R.A., Granite, E.J., & Pennline, H.W. (2004). Recent advances in mercury removal technology at the National Energy Technology Laboratory. In FUEL PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY, 85(6-7), (pp. 533-548).Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.fuproc.2003.11.007.

Zhang, Y.Z., Granite, E.J., Maroto-Valer, M.M., & Tang, Z. (2003). Activated carbons produced from unburned carbon in fly ash and their application for mercury capture. In ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, 225, (p. U845).

Granite, E.J., & Pennline, H.W. (2002). Photochemical removal of mercury from flue gas. In ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, 223, (pp. U523-U524).

Granite, E.J., Roth, E., & Macala, M. (2018). Process of contacting coal and coal combustion products with an alkaline solution to enhance acid leaching of rare earth elements.

Granite, E.J., & Pennline, H. (2011). Semi-Continuous Detection of Mercury in Gases. 8,069,703.

Granite, E.J., & Pennline, H. (2011). Thief Carbon Catalyst for Oxidation of Mercury in Effluent Stream. 8,071,500.

Granite, E.J., & Pennline, H. (2010). Catalysts for Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas. 7,776,780.

Granite, E.J., & Pennline, H. (2010). Iridium-Based Catalysts for Oxidation of Mercury.

Granite, E.J., & Pennline, H. (2008). Ancillary Oxygen-Fired Combustion with Electrochemical Cells.

Granite, E.J., & Pennline, H. (2006). Method for High Temperature Mercury Capture from Gas Streams. 7,033,419.

Granite, E.J., & Pennline, H. (2003). Method for Removal of Mercury from Various Gas Streams. 6,576,092.

Granite, E.J., Pennline, H., Freeman, M., Hargis, R., & O'Dowd, W. (2003). Thief Process for the Removal of Mercury from Flue Gas. 6,521,021.