headshot of Neeraj Gandhi

Neeraj Gandhi

Graduate Program Director
Lab Website Bioengineering Department


BS, Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, 1988 - 1992

PhD, Bioengineering, UCSF & UC Berkeley (Joint Bioengineering Program), 1992 - 1997

Ayar, E.C., Heusser, M.R., Bourrelly, C., & Gandhi, N.J. (2023). Distinct context- and content-dependent population codes in superior colliculus during sensation and action. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 120(40), e2303523120.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2303523120.

Bourrelly, C., Massot, C., & Gandhi, N.J. (2023). Rapid Input-Output Transformation between Local Field Potential and Spiking Activity during Sensation but not Action in the Superior Colliculus. JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, 43(22), 4047-4061.Society for Neuroscience. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2318-22.2023.

Heusser, M.R., Jagadisan, U.K., & Gandhi, N.J. (2023). Drifting population dynamics with transient resets characterize sensorimotor transformation in the monkey superior colliculus. bioRxiv.Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. doi: 10.1101/2023.01.03.522634.

Heusser, M.R., Bourrelly, C., & Gandhi, N.J. (2022). Decoding the Time Course of Spatial Information from Spiking and Local Field Potential Activities in the Superior Colliculus. ENEURO, 9(6), ENEURO.0347-22.2022.Society for Neuroscience. doi: 10.1523/ENEURO.0347-22.2022.

Jagadisan, U.K., & Gandhi, N.J. (2022). Population temporal structure supplements the rate code during sensorimotor transformations. CURRENT BIOLOGY, 32(5), 1010-+.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2022.01.015.

Smalianchuk, I., & Gandhi, N.J. (2022). Ventral premotor cortex encodes task relevant features during eye and head movements. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, 12(1), 22093.Springer Science and Business Media LLC. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-26479-2.

Massot, C., Jagadisan, U.K., & Gandhi, N.J. (2019). Sensorimotor transformation elicits systematic patterns of activity along the dorsoventral extent of the superior colliculus in the macaque monkey. COMMUNICATIONS BIOLOGY, 2(1), 287.Springer Science and Business Media LLC. doi: 10.1038/s42003-019-0527-y.

Smalianchuk, I., Jagadisan, U.K., & Gandhi, N.J. (2018). Instantaneous Midbrain Control of Saccade Velocity. JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, 38(47), 10156-10167.Society for Neuroscience. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0962-18.2018.

Goffart, L., Cecala, A.L., & Gandhi, N.J. (2017). The superior colliculus and the steering of saccades toward a moving visual target. JOURNAL OF NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, 118(5), 2890-2901.American Physiological Society. doi: 10.1152/jn.00506.2017.

Jagadisan, U.K., & Gandhi, N.J. (2017). Removal of inhibition uncovers latent movement potential during preparation. ELIFE, 6.eLife Sciences Publications, Ltd. doi: 10.7554/eLife.29648.

Jagadisan, U.K., & Gandhi, N.J. (2016). Disruption of Fixation Reveals Latent Sensorimotor Processes in the Superior Colliculus. JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, 36(22), 6129-6140.Society for Neuroscience. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3685-15.2016.

Cecala, A.L., Smalianchuk, I., Khanna, S.B., Smith, M.A., & Gandhi, N.J. (2015). Context cue-dependent saccadic adaptation in rhesus macaques cannot be elicited using color. JOURNAL OF NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, 114(1), 570-584.American Physiological Society. doi: 10.1152/jn.00666.2014.

Katnani, H.A., & Gandhi, N.J. (2013). Time Course of Motor Preparation during Visual Search with Flexible Stimulus-Response Association. JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, 33(24), 10057-10065.Society for Neuroscience. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0850-13.2013.

Gandhi, N.J. (2012). Interactions between gaze-evoked blinks and gaze shifts in monkeys. EXPERIMENTAL BRAIN RESEARCH, 216(3), 321-339.Springer Science and Business Media LLC. doi: 10.1007/s00221-011-2937-z.

Katnani, H.A., & Gandhi, N.J. (2012). The relative impact of microstimulation parameters on movement generation. JOURNAL OF NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, 108(2), 528-538.American Physiological Society. doi: 10.1152/jn.00257.2012.

Katnani, H.A., Van Opstal, A.J., & Gandhi, N.J. (2012). Blink Perturbation Effects on Saccades Evoked by Microstimulation of the Superior Colliculus. PLOS ONE, 7(12), e51843.Public Library of Science (PLoS). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051843.

Katnani, H.A., Van Opstal, A.J., & Gandhi, N.J. (2012). A test of spatial temporal decoding mechanisms in the superior colliculus. JOURNAL OF NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, 107(9), 2442-2452.American Physiological Society. doi: 10.1152/jn.00992.2011.

DeStefino, V.J., Reighard, D.A., Sugiyama, Y., Suzuki, T., Cotter, L.A., Larson, M.G., Gandhi, N.J., Barman, S.M., & Yates, B.J. (2011). Responses of neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla to whole body rotations: comparisons in decerebrate and conscious cats. JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY, 110(6), 1699-1707.American Physiological Society. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00180.2011.

Gandhi, N.J., & Katnani, H.A. (2011). Motor Functions of the Superior Colliculus. ANNUAL REVIEW OF NEUROSCIENCE, VOL 34, 34(1), 205-231.Annual Reviews. doi: 10.1146/annurev-neuro-061010-113728.

Gandhi, N.J., & Katnani, H.A. (2011). Interactions of eye and eyelid movements. In The Oxford Handbook of Eye Movements. Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199539789.013.0017.

Katnani, H.A., & Gandhi, N.J. (2011). Order of operations for decoding superior colliculus activity for saccade generation. JOURNAL OF NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, 106(3), 1250-1259.American Physiological Society. doi: 10.1152/jn.00265.2011.

Bechara, B.P., & Gandhi, N.J. (2010). Matching the Oculomotor Drive During Head-Restrained and Head-Unrestrained Gaze Shifts in Monkey. JOURNAL OF NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, 104(2), 811-828.American Physiological Society. doi: 10.1152/jn.01114.2009.

Anderson, S.R., Porrill, J., Sklavos, S., Gandhi, N.J., Sparks, D.L., & Dean, P. (2009). Dynamics of Primate Oculomotor Plant Revealed by Effects of Abducens Microstimulation. JOURNAL OF NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, 101(6), 2907-2923.American Physiological Society. doi: 10.1152/jn.91045.2008.

Gandhi, N.J., Barton, E.J., & Sparks, D.L. (2008). Coordination of eye and head components of movements evoked by stimulation of the paramedian pontine reticular formation. EXPERIMENTAL BRAIN RESEARCH, 189(1), 35-47.Springer Science and Business Media LLC. doi: 10.1007/s00221-008-1401-1.

Miller, D.M., Cotter, L.A., Gandhi, N.J., Schor, R.H., Cass, S.P., Huff, N.O., Raj, S.G., Shulman, J.A., & Yates, B.J. (2008). Responses of caudal vestibular nucleus neurons of conscious cats to rotations in vertical planes, before and after a bilateral vestibular neurectomy. EXPERIMENTAL BRAIN RESEARCH, 188(2), 175-186.Springer Science and Business Media LLC. doi: 10.1007/s00221-008-1359-z.

Miller, D.M., Cotter, L.A., Gandhi, N.J., Schor, R.H., Huff, N.O., Raj, S.G., Shulman, J.A., & Yates, B.J. (2008). Responses of rostral fastigial nucleus neurons of conscious cats to rotations in vertical planes. NEUROSCIENCE, 155(1), 317-325.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2008.04.042.

Walton, M.M.G., Bechara, B., & Gandhi, N.J. (2008). Effect of reversible inactivation of superior colliculus on head movements. JOURNAL OF NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, 99(5), 2479-2495.American Physiological Society. doi: 10.1152/jn.01112.2007.

Gandhi, N.J., & Sparks, D.L. (2007). Dissociation of eye and head components of gaze shifts by stimulation of the omnipause neuron region. JOURNAL OF NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, 98(1), 360-373.American Physiological Society. doi: 10.1152/jn.00252.2007.

Walton, M.M.G., Bechara, B., & Gandhi, N.J. (2007). Role of the primate superior colliculus in the control of head movements. JOURNAL OF NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, 98(4), 2022-2037.American Physiological Society. doi: 10.1152/jn.00258.2007.

Walton, M.M.G., & Gandhi, N.J. (2006). Behavioral evaluation of movement cancellation. JOURNAL OF NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, 96(4), 2011-2024.American Physiological Society. doi: 10.1152/jn.01323.2005.

Bryant, C.L., & Gandhi, N.J. (2005). Real-time data acquisition and control system for the measurement of motor and neural data. JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE METHODS, 142(2), 193-200.Elsevier BV. doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2004.08.019.

Gandhi, N.J., & Bonadonna, D.K. (2005). Temporal interactions of air-puff-evoked blinks and saccadic eye movements: Insights into motor preparation. JOURNAL OF NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, 93(3), 1718-1729.American Physiological Society. doi: 10.1152/jn.00854.2004.

Walton, M.M.G., Sparks, D.L., & Gandhi, N.J. (2005). Simulations of saccade curvature by models that place superior colliculus upstream from the local feedback loop. JOURNAL OF NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, 93(4), 2354-2358.American Physiological Society. doi: 10.1152/jn.01199.2004.

Barton, E.J., Nelson, J.S., Gandhi, N.J., & Sparks, D.L. (2003). Effects of partial lidocaine inactivation of the paramedian pontine reticular formation on saccades of macaques. JOURNAL OF NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, 90(1), 372-386.American Physiological Society. doi: 10.1152/jn.01041.2002.

Keller, E.L., Gandhi, N.J., & Vijay Sekaran, S. (2000). Activity in deep intermediate layer collicular neurons during interrupted saccades. Exp Brain Res, 130(2), 227-237.Springer Science and Business Media LLC. doi: 10.1007/s002219900239.

Gandhi, N.J., & Keller, E.L. (1999). Activity of the brain stem omnipause neurons during saccades perturbed by stimulation of the primate superior colliculus. J Neurophysiol, 82(6), 3254-3267.American Physiological Society. doi: 10.1152/jn.1999.82.6.3254.

Gandhi, N.J., & Keller, E.L. (1999). Comparison of saccades perturbed by stimulation of the rostral superior colliculus, the caudal superior colliculus, and the omnipause neuron region. J Neurophysiol, 82(6), 3236-3253.American Physiological Society. doi: 10.1152/jn.1999.82.6.3236.

Anderson, R.W., Keller, E.L., Gandhi, N.J., & Das, S. (1998). Two-dimensional saccade-related population activity in superior colliculus in monkey. J Neurophysiol, 80(2), 798-817.American Physiological Society. doi: 10.1152/jn.1998.80.2.798.

Gandhi, N.J., & Keller, E.L. (1997). Spatial distribution and discharge characteristics of superior colliculus neurons antidromically activated from the omnipause region in monkey. J Neurophysiol, 78(4), 2221-2225.American Physiological Society. doi: 10.1152/jn.1997.78.4.2221.

Keller, E.L., Gandhi, N.J., & Shieh, J.M. (1996). Endpoint accuracy in saccades interrupted by stimulation in the omnipause region in monkey. Vis Neurosci, 13(6), 1059-1067.Cambridge University Press (CUP). doi: 10.1017/s0952523800007719.

Keller, E.L., Gandhi, N.J., & Weir, P.T. (1996). Discharge of superior collicular neurons during saccades made to moving targets. J Neurophysiol, 76(5), 3573-3577.American Physiological Society. doi: 10.1152/jn.1996.76.5.3573.

Keller, E.L., Gandhi, N.J., & Weir, P.T. (1996). The activity of superior colliculus neurons during saccades directed to smoothly moving targets. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 37(3).

Das, S., Gandhi, N.J., & Keller, E.L. (1995). Open-loop simulations of the primate saccadic system using burst cell discharge from the superior colliculus. Biol Cybern, 73(6), 509-518.Springer Science and Business Media LLC. doi: 10.1007/BF00199543.

Smoulder, A.L., Jagadisan, U.K., Dallal, A.H., & Gandhi, N.J. (2019). Performance evaluation of dereferencing methods for estimating information flow in laminar connectivity models. In 2019 9th International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering (NER), 2019-March, (pp. 267-270).IEEE. doi: 10.1109/ner.2019.8717048.

Miller, D.M., Cotter, L.A., Gandhi, N.J., Schor, R.H., Huff, N.O., Shulman, J.A., Raj, S.G., & Yates, B.J. (2008). Responses of cerebellar fastigial nucleus neurons to whole-body rotations in vertical planes. In FASEB JOURNAL, 22.

Sparks, D.L., & Gandhi, N.J. (2003). Single cell signals: an oculomotor perspective. In Prog Brain Res, 142, (pp. 35-53).Elsevier.Netherlands. doi: 10.1016/S0079-6123(03)42005-0.

Sparks, D.L., Barton, E.J., Gandhi, N.J., & Nelson, J. (2002). Studies of the role of the paramedian pontine reticular formation in the control of head-restrained and head-unrestrained gaze shifts. In Ann N Y Acad Sci, 956(1), (pp. 85-98).Wiley.United States. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2002.tb02811.x.

Gandhi, N.J., & Sparks, D.L. (2001). Experimental control of eye and head positions prior to head-unrestrained gaze shifts in monkey. In Vision Res, 41(25-26), (pp. 3243-3254).Elsevier BV.England. doi: 10.1016/s0042-6989(01)00054-2.

Sparks, D.L., Freedman, E.G., Chen, L.L., & Gandhi, N.J. (2001). Cortical and subcortical contributions to coordinated eye and head movements. In Vision Res, 41(25-26), (pp. 3295-3305).Elsevier BV.England. doi: 10.1016/s0042-6989(01)00063-3.

Research interests

eye movements
gaze shifts
head movements
neural prostheses
superior colliculus