Nathan Youngblood, PhD, assistant professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, was a part of Harish Bhaskaran's Advanced Nanoscale Engineering research group at the University of Oxford before joining the University of Pittsburgh. The group's research was recently published in the journal Science Advances.
Republished with permission from the University of Oxford.
OXFORD, United Kingdom (Dec. 2, 2019) -- The first ever integrated nanoscale device
which can be programmed with either photons or electrons has been developed by
scientists in Harish Bhaskaran’s Advanced Nanoscale Engineering research group
at the University of Oxford. In collaboration with researchers at the
universities of Münster and Exeter,
scientists have created a first-of-a-kind electro-optical device which bridges
the fields of optical and electronic computing. This provides an elegant
solution to achieving faster and more energy efficient memories and processors.
Computing at the speed of light has been an
enticing but elusive prospect, but with this development it’s now in tangible
proximity. Using light to encode as well as transfer information enables these
processes to occur at the ultimate speed limit – that of light. While as of
recently, using light for certain processes has been experimentally demonstrated,
a compact device to interface with the electronic architecture of traditional
computers has been lacking. The incompatibility of electrical and light-based
computing fundamentally stems from the different interaction volumes that
electrons and photons operate in. Electrical chips need to be small to operate
efficiently, whereas optical chips need to be large, as the wavelength of light
is larger than that of electrons.
To overcome this challenging problem the
scientists came up with a solution to confine light into nanoscopic dimensions,
as detailed in their paper Plasmonic
nanogap enhanced phase change devices with dual electrical-optical
functionality published in Science Advances, 29 November 2019. They created
a design which allowed them to compress light into a nano-sized volume through
what is known as surface plasmon polariton. The dramatic size reduction in
conjunction with the significantly increased energy density is what has allowed
them to bridge the apparent incompatibility of photons and electrons for data
storage and computation. More specifically, it was shown that by sending either
electrical or optical signals, the state of a photo- and electro-sensitive
material was transformed between two different states of molecular order.
Further, the state of this phase-transforming material was read out by either
light or electronics thereby making the device the first electro-optical
nanoscale memory cell with non-volatile characteristics.
“This is a very promising path forward in
computation and especially in fields where high processing efficiency is
needed,” states Nikolaos Farmakidis, graduate student and co-first author.
Co-author Nathan Youngblood continues:
“This naturally includes artificial intelligence applications where in many
occasions the needs for high-performance, low-power computing far exceeds our
current capabilities. It is believed that interfacing light-based photonic
computing with its electrical counterpart is the key to the next chapter in
The work was carried out as part of the
H2020 project Fun-COMP (#780848), see www.fun-comp.org
for further details
Paper published 29 November 2019: Plasmonic
nanogap enhanced phase-change devices with dual electrical-optical
Nikolaos Farmakidis1*, Nathan
Youngblood1*, Xuan Li1, James Tan1, Jacob L.
Swett1, Zengguang Cheng1, C. David Wright2,
Wolfram H. P. Pernice3, Harish Bhaskaran1
Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH, UK. 2
Department of Engineering, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 QF, UK. 3
Institute of Physics, University of Muenster, Heisenbergstr, 11, 48149
Muenster, Germany. *These authors contributed equally to this work.
Contact: Maggie Pavlick