Pitt | Swanson Engineering
Kozai, Takashi Daniel Yoshida
Bioengineering Department
Kozai, Takashi Daniel Yoshida
Faculty
Assistant Professor
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PhD in Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2011

MS in Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2007

BA in Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, 2005

BA in Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, 2005

Postdoctoral in Bioengineering, Unviversity of Pittsburgh, 2011-2013

Biocompatability

Brain Computer Interface

Electrophysiology

Medical Device Design

Neural Engineering

Neural Interface

Two Photon Microscopy

Elucidating how biological structures and biochemical pathways influence neurophysiology following injury and disease, as well as bidirectional communication between the nervous system and neural interface technology

Kozai, T., Eles, J.R., Vazquez, A., and Cui, X., "Two-photon imaging of chronically implanted neural electrodes: Sealing methods and new insights.," To appear in Journal of Neuroscience Methods.

Kozai, T., Catt, K., Du, Z., Kyounghwan, N., Srivannavit, O., Haque, R.U., Seymour, J., Wise, K., Yoon, E., and Cui, X., 2015, "Chronic in vivo evaluation of PEDOT/CNT for stable neural recordings.," IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering, 26087481.

Kozai, T.D., and Vazquez, A.L., 2015, "Photoelectric artefact from optogenetics and imaging on microelectrodes and bioelectronics: New Challenges and Opportunities.," Journal of Materials Chemistry. B, Materials For Biology and Medicine, vol.3, no.25, pp. 4965-4978, 26167283.

Kozai, T.D., Catt, K., Li, X., Gugel, Z.V., Olafsson, V.T., Vazquez, A.L., and Cui, X.T., 2015, "Mechanical failure modes of chronically implanted planar silicon-based neural probes for laminar recording.," Biomaterials, vol.37, pp. 25-39, 25453935.

Kozai, T.D., Du, Z., Gugel, Z.V., Smith, M.A., Chase, S.M., Bodily, L.M., Caparosa, E.M., Friedlander, R.M., and Cui, X.T., 2015, "Comprehensive chronic laminar single-unit, multi-unit, and local field potential recording performance with planar single shank electrode arrays.," Journal of Neuroscience Methods, vol.242, pp. 15-40, 25542351.

Kozai, T.D., Jaquins-Gerstl, A.S., Vazquez, A.L., Michael, A.C., and Cui, X.T., 2015, "Brain tissue responses to neural implants impact signal sensitivity and intervention strategies.," ACS Chemical Neuroscience, vol.6, no.1, pp. 48-67, 25546652.

Alba, N.A., Du, Z.J., Catt, K., Kozai, T., and Cui, X., 2015, "In vivo electrochemical analysis of a PEDOT/MWCNT neural electrode.," Biosensors, vol.5, no.4, pp. 618-646.

Kolarcik, C.L., Catt, K., Rost, E., Albrecht, I.N., Bourbeau, D., Du, Z., Kozai, T.D., Luo, X., Weber, D.J., and Cui, X.T., 2015, "Evaluation of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/carbon nanotube neural electrode coatings for stimulation in the dorsal root ganglion.," Journal of Neural Engineering, vol.12, no.1, p. 016008, 25485675.

Kolarcik, C.L., Luebben, S.D., Sapp, S.A., Hanner, J., Snyder, N., Kozai, T.D., Chang, E., Nabity, J.A., Nabity, S.T., Lagenaur, C.F., and Cui, X.T., 2015, "Elastomeric and soft conducting microwires for implantable neural interfaces.," Soft Matter, vol.11, no.24, pp. 4847-61, 25993261.

Patel, P.R., Na, K., Zhang, H., Kozai, T.D., Kotov, N.A., Yoon, E., and Chestek, C.A., 2015, "Insertion of linear 8.4 µm diameter 16 channel carbon fiber electrode arrays for single unit recordings.," Journal of Neural Engineering, vol.12, no.4, p. 046009, 26035638.

Kozai, T.D., Alba, N.A., Zhang, H., Kotov, N.A., Gaunt, R., and Cui, X., 2014, "Nanostructured coatings for improved charge delivery to neurons," in Nanotechnology and Neuroscience: Nano-electronic, Photonic and Mechanical Neuronal Interfacing, J. Assad, L. Martiradonna, and M.D. Vittorio, eds., Springer, pp. 71-134, New York.

Kozai, T.D., Gugel, Z., Li, X., Gilgunn, P.J., Khilwani, R., Ozdoganlar, O.B., Fedder, G.K., Weber, D.J., and Cui, X.T., 2014, "Chronic tissue response to carboxymethyl cellulose based dissolvable insertion needle for ultra-small neural probes.," Biomaterials, vol.35, no.34, pp. 9255-68, 25128375.

Kozai, T.D., Li, X., Bodily, L.M., Caparosa, E.M., Zenonos, G.A., Carlisle, D.L., Friedlander, R.M., and Cui, X.T., 2014, "Effects of caspase-1 knockout on chronic neural recording quality and longevity: insight into cellular and molecular mechanisms of the reactive tissue response.," Biomaterials, vol.35, no.36, pp. 9620-34, 25176060.

Kozai, T.D., Langhals, N.B., Patel, P.R., Deng, X., Zhang, H., Smith, K.L., Lahann, J., Kotov, N.A., and Kipke, D.R., 2012, "Ultrasmall implantable composite microelectrodes with bioactive surfaces for chronic neural interfaces.," Nature Materials, vol.11, no.12, pp. 1065-73, 23142839.

Kozai, T.D., Vazquez, A.L., Weaver, C.L., Kim, S.G., and Cui, X.T., 2012, "In vivo two-photon microscopy reveals immediate microglial reaction to implantation of microelectrode through extension of processes.," Journal of Neural Engineering, vol.9, no.6, p. 066001, 23075490.

Gilgunn, P., Khilwani, R., Kozai, T.D., Weber, D.J., Cui, X., Ozdoganlar, O.B., and Fedder, G.K., 2012, "An ultra-compliant, scalable neural probe with molded biodissolvable delivery vehicle," Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), 2012 IEEE 25th International Conference on, IEEE, pp. 56-59, Paris.

Kozai, T.D., Marzullo, T.C., Hooi, F., Langhals, N.B., Majewska, A.K., Brown, E.B., and Kipke, D.R., 2010, "Reduction of neurovascular damage resulting from microelectrode insertion into the cerebral cortex using in vivo two-photon mapping.," Journal of Neural Engineering, vol.7, no.4, p. 046011, 20644246.

Kozai, T.D., and Kipke, D.R., 2009, "Insertion shuttle with carboxyl terminated self-assembled monolayer coatings for implanting flexible polymer neural probes in the brain.," Journal of Neuroscience Methods, vol.184, no.2, pp. 199-205, 19666051.

Escamilla-Mackert, T., Langhals, N.B., Kozai, T.D., and Kipke, D.R., 2009, "Insertion of a three dimensional silicon microelectrode assembly through a thick meningeal membrane.," Conference Proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of The IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual Conference, vol.2009, pp. 1616-8, 19964007.

Kozai, T., 2015, "Elucidating Molecular and Cellular Inflammatory Tissue Response to Implantable Neurotechnologies Guides Next-Generation Intervention Strategies," University of Texas, Dallas.

Kozai, T., 2015, "Elucidation of Molecular and Cellular Level Tissue Response to Implantable Neurotechnology Guides Next-Generation Intervention Strategies," Brown University.

Kozai, T., 2015, "In vivo Multiphoton Microscopy Elucidates Molecular & Cellular Level Tissue Response to Neural Implants and Guides Next-Generation Neurotechnology Design," University of Michigan.

Kozai, T., 2015, "In vivo Two-photon Microscopy Elucidates Molecular & Cellular Level Tissue Response to Neural Implants and Guides Next-Generation Neurotechnology Designs," University of Pittsburgh.

Kozai, T., and Cui, X., 2015, "Multimodal microelectrode failure analysis reveals complexity of biotic and abiotic recording failure," Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL.

Kozai, T., Jaquins-Gerstl, A.S., Vazquez, A., Michael, A., Brunette, G., Eles, J.R., Snyder, N., Lagenaur, C.F., and Cui, X., 2015, "Evaluating bioactive intervention strategies using in vivo multiphoton microscopy for improved neural interface device," Biomedical Engineering Society, Tampa, Fl.

McFadden, W., Zheng, X.S., Erbas, V.E., Gorantla, V., Cui, X., and Kozai, T., 2015, "Fabricating and Evaluating Carbon Fiber Microelectrodes for Muscle Stimulation," Biomedical Engineering Society, Tampa, FL.

Patel, P.R., Zhang, H., Robbins, M.T., Nofar, J.B., Marshall, S.P., Kobylarek, M.J., Kozai, T., Kotov, N.A., Kipke, D.R., and Chestek, C.A., 2015, "In Vivo Stability Assessment of Carbon Fiber Microelectrode Arrays," Biomedical Engineering Society, Tampa, FL.

Kozai, T., 2014, "Carbon Fiber Ultramicroelectrodes for Recording and Wireless Stimulation of Discrete Population of Neurons," IEEE EMBS BRAIN Grand Challenges Conference, Washington, DC.

Kozai, T., 2014, "Molecular and Cellular Inflammatory Tissue Response to Implantable Neurotechnologies and Emerging Intervention Strategies," New Jersey Institute of Technology.

Kozai, T., Jaquins-Gerstl, A.S., Vazquez, A., Michael, A., and Cui, X., 2014, "Temporal Dynamics of Molecular and Cellular Level Reactive Tissue Response and Its Chronic Influence on Signal Sensitivity," Monitoring Molecules in Neuroscience Annual Meeting, Los Angeles CA.

Kozai, T., Li, X., Bodily, L.M., Caparosa, E.M., Zenonos, G.A., Carlisle, D.L., Friedlander, R., and Cui, X., 2014, "Role of Interleukin-1ß converting enzyme on recording performance and the reactive tissue response around chronic neural electrode," Biomedical Engineering Society Annual Meeting, San Antonio, Tc.

Kozai, T., Snyder, N., Lagenaur, C.F., Vazquez, A., Kim, S.G., and Cui, X., 2014, "Coating Improves Neural Electrode Integration as Revealed by Multi-photon Microscopy," Biomedical Engineering Society, Seattle WA.

Kozai, T., Vazquez, A., and Cui, X., 2014, "In vivo 2 photon histology of novel electrode technologies directs next generation device design," Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting, Washington DC.

Kozai, T., Vazquez, A., Taylor, I.M., and Cui, X., 2014, "Carbon Fiber for Electrophysiology, Chemical Sensing, and Wireless Stimulation of Discrete Population of Nerves," DARPA ElectRx Workshop, Arlington, VA.

Brunette, G., Kozai, T., Jaquins-Gerstl, A., Vazquez, A., Michael, A., and Cui, X., 2014, "Dexamethasone Attenuates Immediate Microglial Reactions to Brain Microdialysis in Vivo, as Revealed by 2-Photon Microscopy," Biomedical Engineering Society, San Antonio, TX.

Iordanova, B., Vazquez, A., Poplawsky, A., Kozai, T., Fukuda, M., Murphy, M., and Kim, S.G., 2014, "Optogenetic control of hemodynamic response in rat somatosensory cortex - fMRI and optical study," ISMRM Annual Meeting, Milan, Italy.

Jaquins-Gerstl, A., Kozai, T., Cui, X., and Michael, A., 2014, "2-Photon Microscopy of Brain Tissue during Microdialysis Probe Insertion.," Monitoring Molecules in Neuroscience, Los Angeles CA..

Jaquins-Gerstl, A., Kozai, T., Cui, X., and Michael, A., 2014, "Using 2-Photon Microscopy of Brain Tissue during Microdialysis Probe Insertion.," Pittcon 2014, Pittsburgh, PA.

Patel, P.R., Na, K., Zhang, H., Kozai, T., Kotov, N.A., Yoon, E., and Chestek, C.A., 2014, "Development of a high density and high channel count carbon fiber electrode array using a minimal and stackable silicon support structure," Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC.

Patel, P.R., Na, K., Zhang, H., Kozai, T., Kotov, N.A., Yoon, E., and Chestek, C.A., 2014, "Insertion and development of linear 8.6µm diameter channel carbon fiber electrode arrays for single unit recordings," EEE EMBS BRAIN Grand Challenges Conference, Washington, DC.

Patel, P.R., Na, K., Zhang, H., Langhals, N.A., Kozai, T., Kotov, N.A., Yoon, E., and Chestek, C.A., 2014, "A high density and high channel count carbon fiber electrode array utilizing a stackable silicon backbone.," Neural Interface Conference, Dallas, TX.

Kozai, T., 2013, "Towards Seamless Integration of Machine and Brain Directed By A Biological Road Map," Pittsburgh, PA.

Kozai, T., Bodily, L.M., Du, Z., Zenonos, G.A., Carlise, D., Caparosa, E.M., Friedlander, R., Smith, M., Ferrante, R., and Cui, X., 2013, "Role of Interleukin 1ß converting enzyme on inflammation and neuronal degeneration around chronic neural electrode and recording performance," Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, CA.

Kozai, T., Snyder, N., Lagenaur, C.J., Vazquez, A., Kim, S.G., and Cui, X., 2013, "L1 Coating Improves Neural Electrode Integration as Revealed by Multi-photon Microscopy," Biomedical Engineering Society, Seattle, WA.

Cui, X., Lagenaur, C.F., Kozai, T.D., Azemi, E., Snyder, N., Du, Z., Schwartz, A.B., Kim, S., Vazquez, A., and Tien, R., 2013, "BIO-MIMETIC NEUROTECHNOLOGIES CAMOUFLAGE IMPLANTS AS NEURONS," Pioneering New Challenges in FDA Translation, Aspen, Colorado.

Gugel, Z., Kozai, T., and Cui, X., 2013, "Quantification of chronic cortical functionality using local field potential recorded from the mouse visual cortex," Biomedical Engineering Society, Seattle, WA.

Gugel, Z.V., Kozai, T., Gilgunn, P.J., Khilwani, R., Ozdoganlar, O.B., Fedder, G.K., Weber, D.J., Li, X., and Cui, X., 2013, "Neuronal Distribution around a biodissolvable delivery vehicle for the insertion of an ultra-compliant neural probe," Biomedical Engineering Society, Seattle, WA.

Iordanova, B., Vazquez, A., Poplawsky, A.J., Kozai, T., Fukuda, M., and Kim, S.G., 2013, "Optogenetic control of neurovascular coupling along the transcallosal circuits in rat somatosensory cortex," Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, CA.

Patel, P.A., Zhang, H., Kozai, T., Kotov, N.A., Kipke, D.R., and Chestek, C.A., 2013, "Carbon fiber array insertion assisted by controlled application and removal of polyethylene glycol.," Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, CA.

Kozai, T., and Cui, X., 2012, "Reliable Cortical Interface: Dynamic in vivo evaluation of Engineered Enhancement of Tissue-Electrode Compatibility," DARPA RE-NET Meeting, New Orleans, LA,.

Kozai, T., Bodily, L.M., Zenonos, G.A., Du, Z., Friedlander, R., Ferrante, R.J., and Cui, X., 2012, "Interleukin-1ß converting enzyme knockout mice exhibit improved chronic single unit recording quality over weeks," Neural Interface Conference, Salt Lake City, UT.

Kozai, T., Bodily, L.M., Zenonos, G.A., Friedlander, R., and Cui, X., 2012, "Interleukin-1ß converting enzyme knockout mice exhibit improved chronic single unit recording quality over weeks.," Annual McGowan Institute Retreat, Farmington, PA.

Kozai, T., Gilgunn, P.J., Khilwani, R., Li, X., Ozdoganlar, O.B., Fedder, G.K., Weber, D.J., and Cui, X., 2012, "Biodissolvable delivery vehicle for ultra-small, ultra-compliant, ultra-structured neural probes," Biomedical Engineering Socity, Atlanta, GA.

Kozai, T., Gilgunn, P.J., Khilwani, R., Li, X., Ozdoganlar, O.B., Fedder, G.K., Weber, D.J., and Cui, X., 2012, "Insertion and chronic implantation of biodissolvable delivery vehicle for ultra-small, ultra-compliant neural probes.," Neural Interface Conference, Salt Lake City, UT.

Kozai, T., Gillgun, P.J., Kihlwani, R., Li, X., Ozdoganlar, O.B., Fedder, G.K., Weber, D.J., and Cui, X., 2012, "Ultra-compliant Neural Probes with Stiff Biodegradable Needles," DARPA RE-NET Meeting, New Orleans, LA.

Kozai, T., Vazquez, A., Weaver, C.L., Kim, S.G., and Cui, X., 2012, "In vivo two photon microscopy reveals immediate microglial reaction to implantation of microelectrode through extension of processes," Society for Neuroscience, New Orleans, LA.

Kozai, T., Vazquez, A., Weaver, C.L., Kim, S.G., and Cui, X., 2012, "In vivo two photon microscopy reveals immediate microglial reaction to implantation of microelectrode through extension of processes.," Neural Interface Conference, Salt Lake City, UT.

Kozai, T., Vazquez, A., Weaver, C.L., Snyder, N., Kim, S.G., and Cui, X., 2012, "Implantation of stealthy ultramicroelectrodes into mouse cortex for simultaneous chronic in vivo two-photon imaging and neural recordings," Annual McGowan Institute Retreat, Farmington, PA.

Alba, N., Catt, K., Du, Z., Kozai, T., and Cui, X., 2012, "In vivo electrically controlled release of Dexamethasone from carbon nanotube-doped PEDOT-coated microwires in rat cortex," Biomedical Engineering Society, Atlanta, GA.

Fedder, G.K., Weber, D.J., Cui, X., Ozdoganlar, O.B., Gilgunn, P.J., Kozai, T., Khilwani, R., and Ong, X.C., 2012, "Ultra-compliant Neural Probes with Biodissolvable Delivery Vehicle.," DARPA RE-NET Meeting, New Orleans, LA.

Gilgunn, P.J., Kozai, T., Khilwani, R., Weber, D.J., Cui, X., Ozdoganlar, O.B., and Fedder, G.K., 2012, "Ultra-small, ultra-compliant neural probe design impact on relative motion in tissue," Neural Interface Conference, Salt Lake City, UT.

Gilgunn, P.J., Khilwani, R., Kozai, T., Weber, D.J., Cui, X., Erdos, G., Ozdoganlar, O.B., and Fedder, G.K., 2012, "An ultra-compliant, scalable neural probe with molded biodissolvable delivery vehicle," Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), 2012 IEEE 25th International Conference on, Paris, France.

Gilgunn, P.J., Khilwani, R., Kozai, T., Weber, D.J., Cui, X., Erdos, G., Ozdoganlar, O.B., and Fedder, G.K., 2012, "Dynamics of Ultra-compliant Neural Probe Delivery Vehicles," International Conference on Microneedles, Cork, Ireland.

Gugel, Z., Kozai, T., and Cui, X., 2012, "Vascular and cellular characterization of brain tissue around implanted electrodes," Biomedical Engineering Society, Atlanta, GA.

Gugel, Z.V., Kozai, T., and Cui, X., 2012, "Vascular and cellular characterization of brain tissue around implanted electrodes," Science 2012, Pittsburgh, PA.

Kozai, T., Langhals, N.B., Patel, P.R., Deng, X., Zhang, H., Smith, K.L., Lahann, J., Kotov, N., and Kipke, D.R., 2011, "Implantable neural Microthread electrodes probe at mechanisms behind chronic electrode failure," Biomedical Engineering Society, Hartford, Ct.

Gilgunn, P.J., Khilwani, R., Kozai, T., Cui, X., Ozdoganlar, O.B., Weber, D.J., and Fedder, G.K., 2011, "Ultra-compliant neural probes," AVS Michigan Chapter: Graphene Nanomaterials and Neural Interfaces, Detroit, MI.

Kozai, T., 2010, "3D two-photon mapping of cortical vasculature during probe insertion inspires a novel ultramicroelectrode using advanced materials," Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM.

Kozai, T., 2010, "3D two-photon mapping of cortical vasculature during probe insertion inspires a novel ultramicroelectrode using advanced materials," University of Pittsburgh, PA.

Kozai, T., Gibson, M.D., and Kipke, D.R., 2010, "Advanced implantable microelectrode technologies for high-fidelity, multi-modal neural interfaces," Aspen Brain Forum, 1st Annual Meeting, Aspen CO.

Kozai, T., Langhals, N.B., Patel, P.R., Deng, X., Zhang, H., Lahann, J., Kotov, N.A., and Kipke, D.R., 2010, "Design and fabrication of a novel carbon fiber based implantable microthread electrode for in vivo neural recordings," Neural Interface Conference, 39th Annual Meeting, Long Beach, CA.

Kozai, T., Langhals, N.B., Patel, P.R., Deng, X., Zhang, H., Lahann, J., Kotov, N.A., and Kipke, D.R., 2010, "In vivo chronic cortical recordings using novel ultra-smallcarbon fiber based implantable microthread ultramicroelectrodes," Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, CA.

Kozai, T., Patel, P.R., Langhals, N.B., Deng, X., Lahann, J., Kotov, N.A., and Kipke, D.R., 2010, "Poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) Enables 38.5 µm2 Recording Site for Carbon Fiber Based Electrodes," Biomedical Engineering Society, Austin TX.

Langhals, N.B., Ludwig, K.A., Kozai, T., and Kipke, D.R., 2010, "Evaluation of a neural spike sorting package implemented in MATLAB," Biomedical Engineering Society, Austin, Tx.

Patel, P.R., Gibson, M.D., Kozai, T., Langhals, N.B., Deng, X., Lahann, J., and Kipke, D.R., 2010, "Characterization and use of platinum black functionalization layers on ultramicroelectrodes for electrophysiology and neurochemical recording," Society for Neuroscience, San Diego.

Kozai, T., Langhals, N.B., Hooi, F.M., and Kipke, D.R., 2009, "Time Course of Blood Brain Barrier Disruption Due to Microelectrode Insertion into Cerebral Cortex," Biomedical Engineering Society, Pittsburgh, PA.

Kozai, T., Marzullo, T.C., Hooi, F.M., Langhals, N.B., Majewska, A.K., Brown, E.B., and Kipke, D.R., 2009, "Reduction of neurovascular damage resulting from microelectrode insertion into cerebral cortex using in vivo two-photon mapping," Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.

Marzullo, T.C., Kozai, T., Majewska, A.K., Brown, E.B., and Kipke, D.R., 2009, "Two photon imaging of mouse neocortex vasculature combined with simultaneous multichannel recording with silicon electrode arrays," Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.

Kozai, T., and Kipke, D.R., 2008, "Precise implantation of flexible PDMS and polyimide neural probes using a silicon shuttle coated with carboxylic acid terminal self-assembled monolayer," Society for Neuroscience, 38th Annual Meeting, Washington D.C..

Kozai, T., and Kipke, D.R., 2008, "Self-Assembled Monolayer coated Backbone Shuttle for Flexible Probes into Motor Cortex," Neural Interface Conference, Cleveland, Oh.

Subbaroyan, J., Kozai, T., and Kipke, D.R., 2006, "Chronic tissue response evoked by variably flexible intracortical polymer implant systems," . Society for Neuroscience, 36th Annual Meeting,, Atlanta, GA.

Kozai, T., and Vazquez, A., 2014, "Wireless Micro/Nano-Stimulation Opto-electrode for excitable tissue," US62/078,779.

Cui, X., Weber, D.J., Gilgunn, P., Ozdoganlar, O.B., Kozai, T., and Fedder, G.K., 2012, "APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR IMPLANTATION OF DEVICES INTO SOFT TISSUE," Provisional 61/690,044.

Kozai, T., Kipke, D., Langhals, N., Lahann, J., Kotov, N., Deng, X., and Patel, P., 2011, "Implantable micro-component electrodes," 13/805,132.

Kozai, T., Kipke, D., and Subbaroyan, J., 2014, "Probe insertion device for implanting a probe into tissue," 8852206.

Gibson, M., Kozai, T., and Purcell, E., 2013, "SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY," US 8,404,255.